Table Of Contents
- Meaning Of Transport
- Importance Of Good Transport System Of Commerce
- The Various Means Of Transportation
- Meaning Of Road Transportation
- Advantages Of Road Transport
- Disadvantages Of Road Transport
- Advantages Of Rail Transportation
- Disadvantages Of Rail Transportation
- What Is Transportation By Water
- Vessels Used In Water Transportation
- Advantages Of Water Transportation
- Disadvantages Of Water Transportation
- What Is Air Transportation
- Advantages Of Air Transport
- Disadvantages Of Air Transport
- What Is Pipeline Transportation
- Advantages Of Pipeline Transportation
- Disadvantages Of Pipeline Transportation
Meaning Of Transportation:
Transportation is the movement of goods and people from one place to another. Without transport the whole world would be stagnant and movement of goods and human beings would have been nearly impossible.
All movement are possible because of the availability of various means of transport. Transport therefore binds the whole worlds together and makes it one economy entity.
The Importance Of Good Transport System Of Commerce
1. Good transport system enables goods and passengers to be conveyed to where they are needed and at the right. Consider how it would be possible for raw materials such as coal, timber, crude oil, etc to be conveyed from the place of extraction to be used, If there were no transport system.
2. A good transport system enables goods and services to be conveyed from where they are plenty to where they are scarce. This is possible through good means of transport.
3. A good transport reduces cost of production.
4. Good transport brings about location of more industries and this in turn brings about development.
The Various Means Of Transportation
The various means of transportation are grouped into four major parts:
1. Transport by land
2. Transport by sea
3. Transport by air
4. Transport by pipeline (underground)
1. Transport By Land:
Transport by land is further divided into areas:
a. Road transport and
b. Rail transport
– Road Vehicles: This include transportation by all sorts of vehicles such as cars, buses, trailers, tippers etc. People travel from one town to another through this means.
– Car And Buses: Cars travel faster than buses and the cost higher than that of buses.
– Trailers And Lorries: Trailers are heavy duty vehicles specially built with iron and metal, for the purpose of transporting bulky goods such as cement, coal, rod, machine and vehicle spares and livestock such as cow and goat.
– Bicycles: In the past bicycle was a major means of transportation in Nigeria. As civilisation takes place, it started decreasing, Only very few people such as ice cream boys use bicycle in the cities.
– Motorcycles: The use of motorcycles as a means of transportation is on the increase in both towns and village.
– Foot Transport: In the olden days especially before the adventof civilization, there were nothing like bicycle or any sort of motor vehicles, the foot was the sole means of transportation.
Advantages Of Road Transportation
Road transport has the following advantages:
1. One kind of vehicle can be used to transport both goods and passengers, thereby reducing cost of production and maintenance.
2. Unlike other means of transportation, there is no fixed time of departure or arrival, hence people can travel at their convenience.
3. Perishable and bulky goods such as fish, vegetable, etc are better transported by road especially constructed vehicles with in built such as the one used by cold store operators.
4. Road transport is faster for short distance as (unlike sea and air transport), no time is wasted in checking and passing.
5. Other means of transport such as air and sea transport depend on the road transport for bringing in their passengers and carrying them to their destinations.
Disadvantages Of Road Transportation
Here are the disadvantages of road transport:
1. At times, drivers of vehicles run to and from their destination with little or no passengers.
2. Vehicles are usually slow on long distance journey.
3. Road transport can often be disrupted by season such as rainy season, even most of the road especially the rural areas are bad due to erosion.
4. The unkeep of drivers, conductors and maintenance of vehicles may raise cost of operation and thus small profit or no profit at all.
Rail Transport: Rail transport is another means of transportation by land. Although it’s importance in Nigeria is fading due to poor maintenance and management of the system. Rail transport was developed by colonial masters.
Advantages Of Rail Transport
1. Rail transport is suitable for conveying bulky goods for long distance.
2. It is the cheapest means of transportation.
3. Unlike other means of transportation, rail transport is never affected by weather or season.
4. Chances of accident is limited in railway transport.
Disadvantages Of Rail Transport
1. Rail transport is not fast means of transportation.
2. Journeys are not often done at the sheduled time because of the irregularity of the railways system.
3. The routes and stations covered are limited because they have special routes and they cannot fly outside these routes.
2. Transport By Water: Water transport is a means of transportation whereby goods and passengers are conveyed through sea or water.
The followings are vessels use in water transport within the country:
1. Canoe: Canoe is one of the vessels for water transport within the country. Canoes are built locally with wood. Canoes are propelled by paddling with paddle.
2. Engine Boat: This is a boat that carry goods and engine personnel. It is powered by engine which propels it.
3. Speed Boat: This is a small boat that carries a few persons and propelled by engine. It is a modern inventation and a great improvement. It is commonly used by security agents and the force for fighting crime and safe guarding the water ways.
4. The Ships: The ship is also a means of water transportation used for conveying goods and passengers. They are usually very large. It has the capability of carrying goods that can fill three large warehouse. A trip by the ship can take more than one month in the high sea.
Advantages Of Water Transportation
1. It is suitable for conveyance of bulky goods, especially in international trade.
2. It provides an effective means of transportation for merchants and importers.
3. Sea transport is cheap in transportation of bulky goods.
Disadvantages Of Water Transportation
1. It is slow means of transportation.
2. It is not suitable for conveying perishable foods.
3. A lot of time may be wasted at the port of departure and due to protocol involved in checking various shipping documents.
4. Forwarding and clearing cost may increase cost of goods.
3. Air Transportation: In the past, air transport was not as popular as it is today. It was exclusively for top government officials and the wealthy class such as the emir, the caliphates and a selected few.
Aeroplane, Jets and helicopters are the various means of air transportation.
Advantages Of Air Transport
1. It is the fastest means of transportation.
2. Perishable and fragile goods are best conveyed by air.
3. Accident is not as rampant as in road transportation, although this advantages is disappearing due to constant plane clash in recent times.
4. Dilfering is at it’s minimum because travelling times is usually short and handling is only done by airport workers.
Disadvantages Of Air Transport
1. It is an expensive means of transportation and thus cost of goods is increased.
2. It is not suitable for conveying bulky goods such as machines.
3. Weather condition affects air transport more than any other means of transportation.
4. There is usually waste of time resulting from travelling from airport by road, for main cities as most airports are located far from the towns.
5. Cost of maintaining aircraft is too high and a considerable amount must be set aside for depreciation.
4. Pipeline Transportation:
Pipeline is an innovation in the transport industry. This means of transportation was developed for the transportation of liquid such as gas, petrol, kerosine water.
Pipeline are laid underground and the liquid being transported flows to it’s destination.
Advantages Of Pipeline Transportation
1. Pipeline has proved to be safest means of transporting liquid, because of the underground pipes which cannot be involved in any accident.
2. Cost is reduced drastically, think of the cost of fuel gas, maintenance of vehicles, drives and conductors etc and no return journey is required.
3. Pipeline transportation, unlike the land, sea and air transportation, Is never affected by weather.
4. Pipeline is the fastest and safest means of transporting liquid.
5. Road congestion is minimized because the number of the numerous tanker and lorries that could have been used for transportion are reduced.
Disadvantages Of Pipeline Transportation
1. The cost of construction and laying of the pipeline is very high.
2. Pipelines are prone to damage, diving road construction and repairs is usually very expensive.
3. Loss of liquid occurs (Oil spillage), when there is a damage in the pipeline and that is loss of money.
4. When there is oil spillage, people in the environment are usually tempted to fetch the liquid especially oil and gas. And this can result to fire outbreak which claims lives and properties.
5. Oil spillage may result to pollution of land and water.