Structure Of Plant And Animal Cells And Functions Of Their Components

Biology

Topic: Cell Structure And Functions Of Cell Components

Table Of Contents

  • Structure Of The Cell
  • Cell Components Or Organelles And Functions Of Cell Components

Structure Of Plant And Animal Cells And Functions Of Their Components

Structure of the cell: The structure of plant cell and animal cell can fully be understood through the use of microscope. The cell is composed of protoplasm which can be divided into two main parts: the cytoplasm and nucleus. Each cell (plant or animal) is bounded by a thin membrane. The cytoplasm is a fluid material that consists of cytoplasmic organelles such as lysosome, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuoles etc. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear membrane and it consists of chromosomes (chromatin granules) and nucleolus.

The animal cell in addition has centrosomes. The plant cells in addition also has starch granules, cellulose cell wall and some plastids, e.g chloroplasts. The structure and functions of components of cells or organelles are outlined below:

1. Nucleus = i. It controls all life activities of the cell. ii. It stores hereditary information as it contains DNA inside chromosomes which take part in cell division.

2. Chromosome = It contains the DNA which stores genetic traits.

3. Mitochondria = It is described as the power-house of the cell. They are sites of respiration or where energy is released from simple sugar.

4. Vacuole = It contains cells sap which act as an osmoregulatory by helping to remove excess water in cells.

5. Nucleolus = It produces the ribosome for protein synthesis.

6. Endoplasmic reticulum = It aids the transport of minerals within the cytoplasm.

7. Golgi Bodies = It functions in synthesis, packaging and distribution of materials.

8. Chloroplasts = They contain chlorophyll which aid photosynthesis in green plants.

9. Lysosomes = They are responsible for protein synthesis.

10. Ribosomes = They are responsible for protein synthesis.

11. Cell Wall = i. It provides protection, shape and mechanical support for the cell. ii. It also allows free passage of nutrients in and out of the cell.

12. Cell Membrane = i. It serves a great role in selective absorption of materials. ii. It also protects the cell.

13. Centrioles = They are important in cell division. They may also serve as basal body from which flagella or cilia arise.

14. Starch Granules = They store starch for the cell.

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