There are seven functional word groups or parts of speech with an eight one which is used without any grammatical force. These eight parts of speech are the Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections.
These are naming words that help us to identify what we are thinking or talking about. At the initial stage of learning, Nouns are simply defined as the names of persons, places or things but for the purposes of higher learning, we say that: Nouns are words that name persons, places, things, plants, animals as well as abstract ideas or things you cannot usually see. Noun can function as subjects, direct, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and subject complements.
Pronouns are substitute words used in place of nouns or a noun equivalent so as to avoid the monotony of repeating the nouns and boring the reader or listener.
The verb being that part of speech, that names an action of somebody or something, is the most important of the parts of speech because it gives meaning to a sentence.
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. It can therefore be defined as a part of speech that describes, qualifies or places limits on a noun or pronoun.
An adverb is a word that modifies, or describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It adds more morning to a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
In modifying a verb, an adverb answers one of these questions about the verb: Where? When? To What Extent? In What Manner How and Why?. Adverbs may be a single word like ‘slowly?’, a phrase like ‘in the morning’ or a clause like ‘if the noise continues’.
A preposition is a word that relates a noun or pronoun to other words in a sentence. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
Conjunctions work like cement between blocks. They cement or bind a sentence, That is: They are used to join or connect words or groups of words together.
We sometimes express our emotions in short exclamations which often are not complete sentence. These exclamations are known as Interjections.
As interjection can be defined as a word or group of words which express strong feeling or emotion and functions (function) independently of a sentence.
Some feelings or emotions expressed by interjections are anger, disgust, excitement, enthusiasm, fear, joy, sadness, surprise etc. Interjections are made on instinct, they are made as a result of a sudden emotional outburst.
An interjection is not grammatically related to any other word in the sentence in which it occurs. It is therefore isolated from the rest of the sentence with a comma.