Table Of Contents
1. Meaning Of Occupation
2. Divisions Of Occupation
3. Divisions Of Industrial Occupation
4. Factors Which Affect Occupation
5. Differences Between Direct And Indirect Services.
Meaning Of Occupation
Occupation can be defined as a particular work in which someone is permanently engaged and from he/She earns his/her living. Occupation can also be referred to as a “job” or a form of employment, etc. The layman looks at it as any type of work a person does from which he/she earn a living. It may be a full time or a part time work. Example, if you were to ask Goodluck Jonathan what his occupation is, he would say he is a president. Occupation can also be seen as a regular activity performed for payment and occupies one’s time.
Divisions of Occupation
Occupation can be classified into three broad groupings or divisions namely:
a. Industrial Occupation
b. Commercial Occupation
c. Service occupation
a. Industrial Occupation:
This consists of all occupation that are engages in changing raw materials and free gift of nature into finished and assembling the finish products into forms usually by man. The trades that fail within industrial occupations are explained below:
i. Extractive Occupation: Extractive Occupations are those activities directed towards exploring and exploiting natural resources and free gifts of nature, from the land and see examples are follows:
Agriculture: Agricultural occupations are concerned with growing food crops and obtaining raw materials as well as rearing animals. The major occupations under agriculture are:
i. Crop Farming- Crop farmer
ii. Poultry farming- Poultry farmer
iii. Fishing- fisherman
iv. Hunting-Hunter, live-stocking
Mining: mining involves bringing out raw materials from the earth and sea. The major occupations under mining include:
i. Gold mining- Gold miner
ii. Coal mining- Coal miner
iii. Diamond mining- Diamond miner
iv. Crude oil/Gas exploitation petroleum engineer
Quarrying: Extraction of granite, gravels, stones, sand etc. Activities in the quarrying industry are:
i. Stone quarrying
ii. Sand quarrying
iii. Granite quarrying
iv. Gravel quarrying
ii. Manufacturing Occupation: Manufacturing occupation is concerned with changing raw materials obtained from the extractive industry into finished products in added value. For example, raw cotton from Sokoto, Gombe, Niger, and kano is used for the manufacturing of textiles at the textile mills in kaduna, Ikeja, and Aba; Limestone which is abundant at Nkalagu, Benue, etc, is used for the manufacture of cement at Nkalagu and Benue cement companies. Benue and Ajaokute are centres for the manufacture of steel products such as iron bars, rods, iron sheet. This accounts for the citing of the Benue Steel Rolling Mill and Ajaokute Steel Plant in those areas. There are many occupations under manufacturing.
However, we have listed a few below:
i. Soap making
ii. Pomade making
iii. Nails making
iv. Zinc manufacturing
v. Cement and other building materials.
iii. Constructive Occupation: This type of occupation is concerned with the assembling of extracted or manufactured products into finished goods used by man. Examples include: construction of houses by assembling blocks, tiles, doors, window frames. Ceiling boards etc. Bridges, roads, rails, etc are aspects of construction. Related trades are those of welders, carpenters, masons and bricklayers and builders. The construction industry plays a key role in the production process.
Divisions Of Industrial Occupation
1. Commercial Occupation:
Commercial trade or occupation include all the activities that are concerned with trading in goods and services as well as ancillary services. The following are the major occupations under commercial occupation.
a. Trading: This involves buying and selling of goods and services by wholesalers, retailers, brokers, agents, importers and exporters.
b. Aids to trade: The occupations under aids to trade include the following:
i. Transportation: This involves movement of goods and persons from one place to another by road, rail, air, sea and pipeline.
ii. Banking: This involves financial services like accepting deposits, making payments for goods and services, granting credits, discounting bills of exchange.
iii. Warehousing: This involves all activities that help to store goods and raw materials till they are needed.
iv. Insurance: This is a commercial activity that helps to protect or indemnify businessmen against business risks, thereby encouraging people to venture into business.
v. Communication: This involves all activities concerned with the transmission from one end to another in order to aid business.
2. Service Occupation:
Service occupation constitutes all those activities. That provide personal and personalized services that are sellable to consumers who pay for them directly or indirectly. Service industries in Nigeria today are of two broad categories namely:
a. Direct Service Occupation: This involves people who are privately employed in activities that provide amusement, satisfaction and personal service to others. Such people render their service to those who employ them and who pay for them directly. They include the hospitality trades, entertainment trades, legal service providers, health service providers, consultancy service etc. Other more specific examples of people engaged in direct services include: housemaids, family lawyers, family doctors, tailors, barbers, actors and actresses, hoteliers.
b. Indirect Service Occupation: Indirect service occupation constitutes all social welfare services rendered to members of the public by people on government payroll. They are indirect service because members of the public who enjoy such services do not pay for the, directly, but the services are paid for by the government through taxes and levies paid by the citizens.
The government engineers, technicians and labourers build the roads and highways used by all citizens. They are paid through public funds from taxes and levies by citizens. This is also the case with the following workers.
i. Government doctors who work in the public hospitals and treat patients.
ii. The police who enforce law and order.
iii. Immigration officials who guard our borders against smugglers;
iv. The road safety commission which ensures that our highways are safe.
Factors Which Affect Occupation
The following are the factors which affect occupation:
Education enables people to make choice over a wide range of jobs. Literate people are not restricted to a particular type of job. Education widens their scope and choice of jobs. This is however subject to a well planned economy. A bad or unplanned economy levels everybody whether educated or not.
2. Geographical Location:
The location of people and their immediate environment influence not only their way of life or culture, but also their occupation. People who live in the riverine areas like Bayelsa, Akwa Ibom and Rivers States are most likey to engage in fishing and in gin refining as their occupation. People who live in the grassland areas of the north engage in cattle rearing and production of grains like millet, groundnut, etc.
3. Climate And Soil Type:
In nigeria, it is either too much rainfall or too little of it in certain areas. The humid regions of the South East and South West grow oil palm trees, timber, cocoa, etc, in abundance. The people inhabiting those areas have no better choice retain water, have no better choice than to engage in rice and yam production as their occupation. The Northern area encourages groundnut, tomatoes and onions growing and cattle rearing as occupations of the local people.
Skill is the knowledge and ability that enables one to do something well. Many women engage in weaving as occupation because they have the skill. Ikwere people in River state are good weavers of cloth and fabric. E.g the famous Akwette cloth. Pottery is popular in Benin and Ife areas, while blacksmithing is popular in Awka, leather works in Kano, Taffia work in Ikot-Ekpene.
5. Salary And Wages:
Thus is the key factor in the choice of occupation. The higher the amount of remuneration (salary) the more attractive a career becomes. Thus, a number of students are now choosing courses with attractive income in their of study.
6. Aptitude; interest and talent determine choice of occupation in most cases because, if a person has aptitude for something, he will do it better than someone without such aptitude. Singers, cleaners, actors, choose their occupation primarily because they can perform better than others who are not so gifted. Talent and aptitude, are important in the choice and success of a career.
The gender(sex) of a person often influences choice of occupation, because women are better suited for certain jobs than men and vice versa. Certain jobs are almost exclusive for men, like the commercial motor drivers, motor mechanics, masons, carpenters, welders, electricians etc. Women do better in fashion designing, catering services and decorations.
8. Large Market:
Large markets are centres of commerce and therefore, attract traders of all sorts. Trading occupation is perhaps the most popular occupation in Nigeria owning to the existence of large markets in many rural, urban and city centres. This explains why onitsha, Port Harcourt, Lagos that have large markets are dominated by traders and other businessmen and women.
Differences Between Direct And Indirect Services
Direct service occupation involves people who are privately employed in activities that provide amusement, entertainment and personal services to others. People perform such services in order to earn a living from those who benefit from their services. Such services are rendered by lawyers, musicians, authors, barbers etc.
Indirect service occupations are provided by people who are employed by government and paid with tax money paid by citizens. Their services are enjoyed by people who do not pay for them directly but indirectly through tax payment. They include doctors, nurses, teachers, police, army etc.