Interactions Among The Components Of Agro-Ecosystem In Some Farm Settings

Agricultural Science

Topic: Agricultural Ecology

Contents

  • Interactions Among The Components Of Agro-Ecosystem In Some Farm Settings:
  1. In Mono Or Sole Cropping System
  2. In Mixed Cropping System
  3. In Mixed Farming
  4. In Fish Pond
  5. In The Forest Or Savanna

Objectives

At the end of this article, readers should be able to:

1. Discuss How Farm Crops/Animals Interact With Other Organisms And Non Living Things Under Different Farm Settings.

2. Explain Monoculture.

3. Discuss In Details The Interaction Among The Biotic And Abiotic Factors In The Following System:

i. In A Fish Pond
ii. In A Mixed Farming
iii. In A Mixed Cropping

Interactions Among The Components Of Agro-Ecosystem In Some Farm Settings

1. In Mono Or Sole Cropping System

Definition: Mono cropping is a system of cropping where one type crop is grown on a farm or the same piece of land at the same time. Monocropping is usually practiced on large scale farms, where crops such as oil palm, cocoa, kolanut, rubber, rice, maize, etc are grown.

The interaction between the biotic and the abiotic factors in the environment are as follows:

1. Crop plants absorbs nutrients from the soil to grown.

2. Crop plants also absorb water to grow and produce fruits.

3. Crop plants also absorbs carbon dioxide from the air to carry out photosynthesis.

4. Crop residues decay and with the aid of soil micro-organisms release nutrients to the soil.

5. Some organisms in the soil like earthworms, rodents also aid water percolation.

6. Crop plants also release oxygen to the atmosphere during respiration.

2. In Mixed Cropping System

Definition: Mixed cropping system is a system of cropping which involves the growing of two or more crops on the same piece of land at the same time, during the same growing season. The crops are mixed together on the same piece of land. Crops like maize, cassava, cowpea etc can be cultivated at the same time on the same piece of land.

The interaction between the biotic and the abiotic factors in the environment are as follows:

1. Crops like cowpea is capable of adding nutrients to the soil.

2. Crop plants like cassava obtain nutrients from the soil to grow and produce fruits.

3. Carbon dioxide from the air is absorbed by the crop plants to manufacture their good through the process of photosynthesis.

4. Oxygen is also released to the atmosphere by the crop plants during photosynthesis.

5. The leaves of all crops which fall on the ground decayed and add nutrients to the soil through decomposition by soil micro organisms.

6. Farm animals can feed on these crops and release faeces or dung on the ground which later decay to release nutrients to the soil.

7. Crop plants also release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during respiration.

3. In Mixed Farming

Definition: Mixed farming involves the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals simultaneously on the same piece of land or farm. The farm may be divided into two parts: one part for growing crops and the other part for growing of grasses and keeping of livestock.

Interaction between the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment are as follows:

1. The grasses or the remains of crop serves as food for the animals.

2. The animal Dung’s and droppings are used as organic manure to improve the soil fertility for the crops.

3. Both animals and crops releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during respiration.

4. Some crops like cowpea and crop residue may decay to releases nutrients to the soil.

5. Crop plants absorbs soil nutrients and water from the soil for growth and production.

6. Crop plants can also release oxygen at atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis.

7. Crop plants also make use of sunlight in the environment to make the food through the process of photosynthesis.

4. In Fish Pond

Fish pond is an aquatic environment where fishes live, grow, produce and harvested for food and other commercial purposes.

The interaction between the biotic and abiotic factors in the aquatic environment include the following:

1. The fishes feed on planktons, in the water as their sources of food.

2. The death of some fishes serves as manure for the microscopic plants (planktons) in the water.

3. Both planktons and fishes release carbon dioxide to the aquatic habitat which aid photosynthesis by the planktons.

4. The planktons in the water make use of carbon dioxide and water to make their food and releases oxygen to the environment which aid respiration in water.

5. The planktons also make use of sunlight during photosynthesis to manufacture their food.

6. Fish Dung’s or dropping also provide a source of nutrients to the planktons in the water.

5. In The Forest Or Savanna

The forest or the savanna are large expanse of land containing varieties of plants and animals living and interacting together in a terrestrial environment.

Interaction between the biotic and abiotic factors in a terrestrial (forest or savanna) environment are as follows:

1. Animals feed on plants and fruits to obtain their food.

2. Animal Dung’s and droppings can serve as nutrients to the soil.

3. Plants obtain the nutrients and water from the soil to enable them prepare their food.

4. Plants and animals also respire to release carbon dioxide to the environment which is used by plants to manufacture their food.

5. Sunlight from the atmosphere is also used by green plants to manufacture their food during photosynthesis.

6. Plants generally releases oxygen into the environment during photosynthesis.

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