The fundamental human rights are the basic natural rights which are essential for human existence and every individual is entitled to them, and is expected to enjoy them in full without any form of hindrances. Some of these rights are:
1. Right to life
2. Right to dignity of human person
3. Right to personal liberty
4. Right to fair hearing
5. Right to private and family life
6. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
7. Right to freedom of expression, press and opinion
8. Right to peaceful assembly and association
9. Right to freedom of movement
10. Right to freedom from discrimination
11. Right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria
12. Right to education
13. Right to vote and be voted for in any election.
The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria protects these human rights from being abused. The constitution also ensures that the rule of law is upheld, and protects it.
Ways Of Protecting Human Rights
1. Representing The Affected Persons In Court
When the world Evangelist, Reinhard Bonnke was to be arraigned before a court in Benin, many Christian lawyers volunteered to defend him free of charge. Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), defend widows and children from very poor homes in court. For instance, an association made up of female lawyers (FIDA) goes to court to defend any woman in Nigeria that has been battered by her husband if the woman needs their help.
2. Drawing Attention To Cases Of Human Rights Violation Through Protest March, Media Coverage, Hunger Strike, etc.
i. Protest March: Attention of the public and government can be drawn when a group of people march through the streets of our major towns carrying placards. These placards usually indicate their reasons for the protest march. It could be a protest march against non-payment of salaries or increase in the pump-price of fuel, etc.
ii. Media Coverage: Another way individuals and groups can assist in protecting human rights and the rule of law is through media coverage. This is through writing and speaking out against human rights violations in the newspapers and magazines (print media), radio and television (electronic media).
iii. Hunger Strike: A person or group of persons can decide to stay for days without food, in order to protest against the abuse of their rights or to protect their rights. For instance, the former Biafran leader Emeka Odimegwu Ojukwu (The Ikemba of Nnewi) went on hunger strike and slept along the road in Lagos when the Federal Government took his house in Ikoyi, Lagos. Through this way, he got back his house.
iv. Court Action: People whose rights have been violated can go to court to seek redress. Someone who is not directly affected can also represent the affected person in court if he is concerned.