For a long time, rabbit farming in Nigeria has not been taken seriously. In many African societies, rabbits are considered as pets. This is however not the case as farmers can now make good money rearing rabbits. We set out to find out more about rabbit farming in Nigeria.
Rabbit production is one of the livestock enterprises with the greatest potential and room for expansion in Nigeria. This is because of their minimum investment requirements and ability to reproduce fast. Their feed requirement is low, especially with regard to demand for grain.
Their housing and disease control management requirements are also low yet their meat is a highly nutritious and healthier source of protein when compared with other sources of meat.
Rabbit production has experienced steady growth in the past few years, with gender biases associated with its production fading away. Though rabbit meat marketing is yet to gain ground, there is hope that with the growing awareness of the benefits of rabbit meat, it will be possible for rabbit meat to be introduced into the regular meat market. The realization that rabbits are well suited to rapid production of protein has increased the number of industrialized production units just like in poultry.
Rabbit Breeds In Nigeria
The most popular breeds used in the meat industry are the New Zealand White, California white, Flemish Giant, French Ear lop, Chinchilla and Dutch. Other breeds include the Angora primarily kept for fur and as pets; most of the locally available breeds are cross breeds.
Important Factors About Rabbit Farming and Rabbit Meat
1. Rabbits grow fast especially if fed well-reaching maturity at 5 months and slaughter weight at 3 months.
2. They require less land (space) with diminishing land size;
therefore can be kept at the backyard.
3. They can derive their feed requirement entirely on greens
4. They are prolific each doe capable of reproducing 4 times a year an average of 8 kits per kindling.
5. They have one of the highest feed conversion ratios at 4:1.
6. Rabbit meat is white meat of high quality, easily digestible with low fat, low cholesterol and high protein compared to most other meats.
7. The unsaturated fats (good fats) in rabbit meat make 63% of the total fatty acids.
8. Rabbit meat is lower in percentage fat than chicken, turkey, beef and pork.
9. Rabbit meat provides the lowest calories per kilogram of meat consumed compared to other sources of meat.
10. Rabbit meat is one of the cleanest meat as it is raised
off the ground.
11. Other important products from rabbits include manure, skins and fur. They can also be produced as lab animals.
What Are The Maturing Period Of Rabbits
Rabbits have a maturing period of 4 to 5 months after which they can start reproducing. A female rabbit gives birth every 2 months (60 days) to a litter of 6 on average after a gestation period of between 28 and 31 days. The litter number may be more in some cases. The weaning period(suckling) is 28-31 days after which a farmer should start feeding them on hay and pellets.
Benefits Of Rabbit Farming In Nigeria
Here are the great benefits of rabbit farming:
1. Rabbit keeping is cheaper, more efficient, and more productive than other agricultural businesses including poultry farming. This is partly because rabbit feed is much more easily available and constructing a rabbit hutch is very simple.
2. Apart from meat, Rabbit skin and fur can be sold separately providing extra income. The skin and fur are used to make expensive coats in the western world where hunting of foxes
has been banned. Additionally, rabbits produce dung, which is
excellent manure and the urine can also be used as a fertilizer.
3. They are also used as testing specimens by laboratories. The breed usually determines how they are used.
Rabbit Farming In Nigeria – Benefits of Rabbit Meat
1. It is one of the best white meats available on the market
2. The meat has a high percentage of easily digestible protein.
3. It contains the least amount of fat among all the other available meats.
4. Rabbit meat contains less calorie value than other meats.
5. Rabbit meat is almost cholesterol free and therefore heart patient friendly.
6. The sodium content of rabbit meat is comparatively less than other meats.
7. The calcium and phosphorus contents of this meat or more than any other meats.
8. Rabbit meat with the many health benefits does not have
a strong flavour and is comparable to chicken but not identical.
Rabbit Farming In Nigeria– Start Up Costs
A Rabbits cost around N1500 at the age of 1-2 months. The price of mature rabbits depends on weight and size. Mature rabbits can have a live weight of 5 to 6 kg. You can buy breeding stock to start with from local breeders. Rabbits start to breed at the age of 6 to 7 months and give birth after a month of gestation. Female rabbits can produce up to 50 live rabbits per year. They produce an average of 9 kits per birth.
How to Start Rabbit Farming In Nigeria
To start your rabbit farm, prepare a rabbit hutch that is well lit and well ventilated with heating and cooling systems. You can build the hutch from scrap materials. Metal cages are usually recommended for its ease of cleaning.
Equip the hutch with feed and water basin and a nest box. To keep your start up cost low, you can construct rabbit housing yourself from available construction materials you have.
Cleanliness is important to ensure that the rabbits do not get sick.
There is a high demand for rabbit meat in Nigeria. Mostly the meat is sold to restaurants and hotels who serve it as an exotic dish and charge up to N3500 per plate. Rabbit farmers
are therefore keen to sell to big hotels and restaurants.
Local butcheries sell rabbit meat at N800 per kilo while Supermarkets can sell it for up to N1500 per kilo.
Rabbit Farming Housing And Routine Practices
Rabbit Housing Requirements:
1. The house must protect the rabbits and keep them from
2. The house must protect the rabbits from predators.
3. The house must protect the rabbits from adverse weather.
4. The house should allow easy, comfortable access for the
5. The house must be self- cleaning or easy to clean.
6. The house should be of reasonable cost, easy to maintain and be durable.
7. Ideally, rabbits should be kept in cages either outdoor with extended roofs or indoor where the cages are kept inside buildings on platforms.
8. A rabbit unit should be well ventilated, rain-proof and allows some sunlight
Rabbit Housing Dimensions:
1. Standard cages for rabbits should measure; L=80cm, W=60cm, H=45cm.
2. For pregnant does or does with young kits, a provision for a nesting box of 30cm by 30cm.
3. Usually, weld mesh wire is preferred because of ease in
maintaining cleanliness. The quality of available weld mesh
wire in Kenya is however poor and does not last long.
4. Many farmers have thus resorted to using all-wooden cages or wooden plus weld mesh wire cages.
5. Multi-tier cages are becoming popular because they save on
space. More than two-tier cages are however not recommended because of difficulties in management.
Rabbit Farming In Nigeria– Handling Rabbits
The ears alone should never be used as the sole means of holding the rabbit. The best method is to grasp the ears and the skin close to the head with one hand while the other hand takes the full weight of the rabbit at the hips. For young rabbits up to about 3-4 months old, a suitable method is to grasp the animal across the loins.
A part from the sex organs, physically the buck is usually smaller than the doe and often has a broader head. In the buck, a protruding sex organ appears as a rounded tip, while in the doe the organ is slit-like or V-shaped, and will slope slightly downwards towards the anus. When the bucks are mature the penis and testicles are easily observed.
It is important to properly identify your rabbits in order to help you keep records about them. The most common ways of identification for rabbits include tattooing and ear notching. Tattooing is the most relevant in rabbits due to their high turnover. For exhibition purposes rings with official marks are used.
Keep proper records of all your rabbit unit activities i.e. Breeding records, Growth, Sales and expenses. All these are important to help you understand your rabbit enterprise and
for planning. Rabbits with breeding records help avoid inbreeding and can also fetch premium prices when sold to other farmers.