Meaning Of Governance
‘Governance’ according to UNDP (in 1997) is the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises of mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences.
The World Bank identifies three distinct aspects of governance:
1. The form of political regime.
2. The process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development and the capacity of government to design, formulate, and implement policies and discharge functions.
3. It is a continuing process through which conflicting of diverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative action may be taken. It includes formed institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangement that people and institutions either have agreed to or perceived to be in their interest (Commission of Global Governance).
Governance must enable the state, the civil society and the private sector to further broad-based economic growth and social development.
Good government ensures equitable access to resources without regard to gender, social, class, ethnic, or religious affiliation. It underlines the process of realizing real freedoms and capabilities, along with subsequent achievements in poverty reduction and human development. The hallmark of democratic good governance is its ability to secure freedom from discrimination, injustice, and fear.
Freedom of participation, Expression and Association and Freedom for descent work and the realization of one’s human potential are also essential elements of a mature and ideal governance system and a just equitable society.
Actors Of Good Governance
2. Local Bodies
3. Private Sectors
4. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
5. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
7. International Community