Table Of Contents
- Meaning Of Farming System
- Types Of Farming System
- Meaning Of Mixed Farming
- Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mixed Farming
- Meaning Of Bush Fallowing
- Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bush Fallowing
- Meaning Of Pastoral Farming
- Advantages And Disadvantages Of Pastoral Farming.
What Is Farming System
Farming system is a way of organising farm enterprise. It is a way of organizing farm business. The way Agricultural production is organised depends on the traditions of land tenure, topography and climatic condition, The social, economic plasor farming, This caused the study of Farming system.
Types Of Farming System
The different system of farming in Nigeria and other parts of the country includes: Mixed farming, bush fallowing or shifting cultivation And Pastoral Farming.
(1) Mixed Farming:
This is a farming system in which the farmer grows crops and rears animals on the same land as part of the same farming enterprise. In Nigeria, most small scale farms and some large commercial enterprises raise crops and livestock on the same land.
Advantages Of Mixed Farming:
i. Farm produce such as crop residues and fodder are used for feeding the farm animals.
ii. Animal droppings are used as manure to improve soil fertility.
iii. When there is crop failure, The farmer have an alternative source of income from the sale of his livestock and their products.
iv. Some of the large animals like the cattle, can be used to draw ploughs.
v. The mixed farmings can work together to give you extra profits.
Disadvantages Of Mixed Farming:
i. The farmer may have divided attention and this may result in the neglect of either the crops or the animals.
ii. The farmer must be knowlegeable in both crop and animal husbandry.
iii. If the animals are not properly managed, they can eat up the crops.
(2) Bush Fallowing:
This is a modified form of shifting cultivation. The land cultivated for some years, when it’s nutrients is exhausted, it is then allowed to go back to bush for six to twelve years to regain it’s fertility before it is used again. The decayed leaves and plant parts help to enrich the soil during the resting period.
However, with increase in demand for land for other purposes, the follow period is now limited to 2-4 years.
Advantages Of Bush Fallowing:
i. It is a simple, cheap and effective method of restoring soil fertility.
ii. It helps to control build-up of harmful insects, pests and diseases.
iii. The plant cover helps to check erosion.
iv. It’s natural leaves forms humus, thereby increasing soils structure.
Disadvantages Of Bush Fallowing:
i. It can only be practiced when land is abundant.
ii. The bush which are usually cleared by burning have an effect on some economic trees.
iii. It wastes land.
(3) Pastoral Farming:
Pastoral farming can be simply be referred to as animal farming (rearing of animals). It is an extensive system of livestock production. In this system, the animals are not restricted in buildings but allowed to roam about and graze in the fields.
There are three types of pastoral farming which includes:
– Normadic Farming
– Ley Farming
(a) Normadic Farming is a non-settled farming system in which the farmer raise grazing animals only. The normad moves from one location to location. Examples of Normads are the herdsmen.
(b) Ley Farming is also know as rotation pasture. It is a system in which there is a combination with crop production in alternation. This is practised where the pasture is of such quality, nutritionally and morphologically that will not fit into crop rotation system.
(c) Ranching: Livestock ranching is a development of normadic grazing. Ranching normally involves commercial operation on large scale where one operator may control herds, feed them and lastly sell his product to a large commercialmarket.
Advantages Of Pastoral Farming-
i. It does not require so much building and equipments.
ii. Animals raised on pastures tend to produce more milk than those kept indoors.
iii. Livestock kept on pastures are more comfortable and sanitary than those kept indoors.
iv. The livestock harvest the pasture crops by eating it.
v. Droppings, Dungs are used to improve the fertility of the farm. These animals deficate while sleeping.
Hazard/Disadvantages Of Pastoral Farming:
i. There is no controlled breeding in normadic farming.
ii. Large piece of land is required.
iii. Animals here are opened to heat of the sun.
iv. Dispute at times arises as normad clashes with farmers whose farmland has been destroyed by the cattle.
Factors Determining Adoption Of A Farming System Includes
– Social Factors
– Environment Factors
– Land Tenure.
Farming system is a way of organising farm enterprise. It is also a way of orgaznizing farm business.
Mixed farming, bushing fallowing (shifting cultivation) and pastoral farming are the three major types of farming system.
Normadic farming, Ley farming and Ranching are the three types of Pastoral farming.
Factors that determines the Adoption of a farming systems are The social factors, environmental factors and Land tenure.