Effects Of Agricultural Activities On Ecological System

Biology

Table Of Contents

  • Effects Of Overgrazing
  • Effects Of Pesticides Application
  • Effects Of Tillage
  • Effects Of Deforestation
  • Effects Of Bush Clearing
  • Effects Of The Different Types Of Farming On Ecological System

The following agricultural or farming practices carried out by farmers have some effects or consequences on the ecological system. These agricultural practices and their effects include:

1. Bush Burning: Bush burning involves the setting fire on the bush to clear out the vegetation.

Effects Of Bush Burning

1. Burning of bush destroys the organic matter in the soil.

2. The atmosphere is polluted with smoke.

3. It reduces water holding capacity of the soil

4. Many of the micro-organisms are killed.

5. Bush burning brings about the growth and appearance of different set of plants, i.e., it brings about succession.

6. It exposes the soil to erosion and leaching.

2. Overgrazing: Overgrazing is a situation where more animals than can be supported on a particular pasture are put there to graze. In other word, overgrazing is a way of exceeding the carrying capacity of the soil.

Effects Of Overgrazing

1. Overgrazing removes the vegetative cover of the soil.

2. It exposes the soil to erosion.

3. It destroys the soil structure.

4. More faeces are dropped which could improve the fertility of the soil.

5. Weeds can easily be eradicated from such lands.

3. Fertilizer Application: Fertilizer application involves the application of certain chemicals or substances into the soil to improve its fertility.

Effects Of Fertilizer Application

1. Fertilizer application brings about loss of organic matter or humus.

2. It deteriorates the structure of the soil.

3. Fertilizer increases the porosity of the soil.

4. It can affect the life of plants and animals.

5. It stimulates vegetative growth, hence it reduces soil erosion.

4. Application Of Pesticides/Herbicides: Pesticides are chemical substances which are used to destroy or kill pests while herbicides are also chemical substances in form of solution or gases capable of destroying herbaceous plants.

Effects Of Pesticides

1. Pesticides application can cause pollution of the environment.

2. It affects or destroys other useful plants and animals.

3. Excessive use of pesticides may destroy the crop plants.

4. Pesticides may leave undesirable residue in the environment.

5. It reduces population of the targets insects or plants.

5. Tillage: Tillage is defined as the working, digging or breaking up the soil in the preparation for the planting of crops.

Effects Of Tillage

1. Tillage encourages leaching.

2. It helps to loosen the soil.

3. It exposes the soil to erosion.

4. Tillage also enhances the proper aeration of soil.

5. It can also lead to poor vegetation.

6. It changes the structure in ecology of the land.

6. Deforestation: Deforestation is the continuous removal of forest stands (trees) either by bush burning or indiscriminate felling without replacing them.

Effects Of Deforestation

1. Deforestation encourages soil erosion.

2. It reduces the humus content of the soil.

3. It also reduces wildlife population in the area concerned.

4. Deforestation results in loss of soil nutrients through leaching and erosion.

5. Deforestation hinders micro-organisms activities in the soil.

7. Clean Or Bush Clearing: Cleaning clearing is the practice whereby the whole vegetation is cleared and removed thus, leaving the land clean.

Effects Of Bush Clearing

1. Bush clearing results in the disturbance or removal of the rich top soil.

2. It exposes the soil to direct sunshine, hence it affects evaporation of water.

3. Bush clearing increases the temperature of the soil.

4. It gets rid of weeds on the land.

5. It leads to reduction of organic matter content of the soil.

Effects of the Different Types of Farming on Ecological System

1. Monocropping: Monocropping is a system of farming in which one crop is cultivated every year.

Effects of Monocropping

1. Monocropping provides abundant food for pests of the vastly cultivated crop,

2. It greatly increases the population of pests.

3. Monocropping therefore increases the menace of the pests.

4. Such pests reduce the food and population of other animals.

5. Monocropping depletes the soil of its nutrients.

2. Continuous Cropping: This is the repeated cultivation of crops in one area of land.

Effects Of Continuous Cropping

1. Continuous cropping reduces the mineral/nutrient content of the soil.

2. It ensures the spread or multiplication of germs.

3. Continuous cropping ensures the multiplication of pests and parasites.

4. It results in low yield of crops.

3. Shifting cultivation: Shifting cultivation involves the cultivation of a piece of land for one or two years after which it is abandoned for another.

Effects Of Shifting Cultivation

1. Shifting cultivation washes valuable land.

2. It destroys valuable plants and animals in the area.

3. Shifting cultivation decreased the activities of useful micro-organisms.

4. It depletes the mineral nutrients of the soil.

4. Crop Rotation: Crop rotation is the system of farming whereby different crops are grown on the same piece of land year after year in a definite manner so as to maintain the fertility of the soil.

Effects Of Crop Rotation

1. Crop rotation adds nutrients to the soil through the incorporation of leguminous crop in the rotation.

2. It controls the growth of weeds.

3. Crop rotation maximises the use of available land.

4. It helps to control pests associated with soil.

5. It also helps to control diseases.

6. Crop rotation controls erosion.

5. Mixed Farming: Mixed farming is the type of farming in which the farmer cultivates his crops and rears animals on the same piece of land.

Effects Of Mixed Farming

1. Mixed farming adds nutrients to the soil through dungs produced by animals.

2. It can cause pollution of the environment from the odour of animal dung.

3. Mixed farming maximises the use of available land.

4. Cultivated crops may be eaten up by animals.

5. Pests may be built up in the land.

6. Diseases may also build up in the land.

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