Ebola Virus: Meaning, History, Causes, Treatment And Prevention

Table Of Contents

1. The History Of Ebola
2. Causes Of Ebola Virus
3. Symptoms And Complication
4. Treatment And Prevention.

Ebola Virus

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe and often fatal infection. It is spread thought contact with infected blood or body fluid of sufferers.

The History Of Ebola

The Ebola Disease was first discovered in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa in 1976. It got its name from Ebola River near the village Yambuku where the virus was first observed.

The disease is a threat to humanity. It attacked Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Mali. The disease came to Nigeria in 2014 through a Liberian American Lawyer called Patrick Sawyer. The disease killed 19 people in Nigeria and was tackled head long by the people and government of Nigeria. After 93 days the disease was curbed and Nigeria was declared Ebola free country on 20th October, 2014 by the World Health Organization(WHO).

Causes Of Ebola Virus

Ebola outbreaks occur when the virus is transmitted first from an infected animal to a human. The viral infection is spread from animal to humans through contact with wild life fruit bats, chimps and gorillas. Certain fruit bats are known to be natural hosts for the ebola virus.

Ebola virus disease is also transmitted by person to person direct contact through broken skin and mucous membrane.

Through fluids or secretions from infected people such as blood, sweat, breast milk, stool, semen of infected person, urine and vomit the virus spreads.

Symptoms And Complication

The Ebola virus targets the host’s blood and immune system, which can lead to bleeding and weakened immune system. After an incubation period of between two(2) days, the ebola virus appears with the following symptoms.

a. Severe fever

b. Constant headache

c. Muscle pains

d. Sore throat

e. Prolonged vomiting

f. Swelling and redness of eyes

g. Bleeding from the nose and eyes

h. Dizziness and general body weakness

i. Diarrhea

j. Reduced liver and kidney function

k. Rashes like measles appear on the body.

Treatment And Prevention

There is currently no cure for ebola virus disease nor are there any vaccines available to prevent infections. Since there in cure for the disease, the key is limiting outbreaks, is to prevent transmission from animals to humans and between humans. Measures to be put in place to forestall outbreak of ebola virus are:

i. Rapid quarantine of suspected infected animals.

ii. Dead suspected animals should be buried or burnt promptly.

iii. Handling of all animals and their waste with glove’s and other protective clothing.

iv. Animal products must be thoroughly cooked before eating.

v. Safe burial practices.

vi. Wearing protective gear such as glove and other personal protective equipment such as face protection and long-sleeved gowns when dealing with infected patients.

vii. Safe injection practices.

viii. Regular hand washing with soap.

ix. Sanitation and sterilization of the environment and instruments.

x. Identification and isolation of infected individual from the immediate environment. YJY Tracing contact, including those during incubation period.

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