Topic: Relevance Of Biology To Agriculture
Table Of Contents
- Classification Of Plants
- Botanical Classification Of Plants
- Agricultural Classification Of Plants
- Classification Of Plants Based On Life Cycle
Biology and Agriculture are closely related subjects as both deal with plants and animals. Agriculture involves the growing of crops and rearing of animals for man’s uses. Biology on the other hand involves the study of plants and animals. Biology in so many ways has relevance to Agriculture.
Classification Of Plants
Plants are generally classified based on three major criteria. These are:
1. Botanical classification
2. Agricultural classification
3. Classification based on life cycle.
Botanical Classification Of Plants
Plants are generally classified through the botanical method and the use of binomial system. The botanical classification are under the plant kingdom which are divided into: Schizophyta, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta..
Agricultural Classification Of Plants
Agricultural classification of plants is the type of classification based on the uses of plants. In this classification, crops or plants are grouped into the following categories based on their uses.
1. Cereal Plants: These plants belong to the grass family and they provide carbohydrate, e.g. Maize, rice, millet, guinea corn, wheat, barley, oats etc.
2. Pulses (grain legumes): Pulses are crops which provides proteins for a man and animals when eaten. E.g. Cowpea, soyabeans, groundnut, lima bean, pigeon pea.
3. Roots and tuber crops: These crops produce tubers under the ground and they provide carbohydrate to human and animals when eaten, e.g. Cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, Irish potato, beets, carrot etc.
4. Vegetable crops: Vegetable crops provide vitamins and minerals to human and animals when consumed, e.g. tomatoes, amaranthus, onion, okra, cauliflower, spinach, bitter leaf, water leaves etc.
5. Fruit plants Fruit plants also provide vitamins and minerals to human and animals when consumed, e.g. orange, banana, pineapple, mango, pawpaw, cashew etc.
6. Beverage plants: These crop plants provide food drinks when processed into finished products like bournvita, ovaltine, pronto etc. Examples of beverage crops are cocoa, coffee, tea, kola etc.
7. Spices: These crop plants provide vitamins and minerals to man and animals when consumed, e.g. Ginger, pepper, onion etc.
8. Oil plants: Oil plants can provide oil when processed both for domestic and industrial uses, e.g. Oil palm, groundnut, melon, coconut, soyabean, cotton etc.
9. Fibre crops: These are crop plants used for making clothing materials, ropes and bags, e.g. Cotton, sisal, hemp, kenaf, hibiscus etc.
10. Latex crops: These are crops which provide some white, sticky liquid (latex) used in plastic industries, e.g. rubber.
Classification of Plants Based on Life Cycle
In the classification based on life cycle, plants are grouped into three categories based on their life cycle or the life span of the crop plants, or the number of years is able to grow, mature and produce fruit. The groups are:
Annuals are plants which complete their life cycles in one season. In other words, the plant grow, mature, produce fruits and die within one year. Examples of annual plants are maize, rice, cowpea, millet, vegetable, cotton, groundnut etc.
These are plants which complete their life cycles with two years. These plants develop their vegetative parts during the first year and produce fruits and die during the second year. Examples of biennial plants are pepper, carrot, onion and ginger.
Perennial plants grow, mature and produce fruits for more than two years. In this case, some plants can live for three, five, ten or even over 20 years. Examples of perennial plants are cocoa, banana, orange, oil palm, rubber, mango etc.