Maize production is a lucrative farming in Ethiopia, Thereby , there are lots of biotic factors affecting maize production.A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors are the living components of an ecosystem.
Biotic factors refer to the living organisms, both macro- and micro-organisms, including the various ways in which they affect plant growth and development. These organisms are the living components of the environment which influence the manifestation of the genetic factor on phenotypic expression.
Macro-organisms refer to the animals such as humans and other mammals, birds, insects, arachnids, molluscs, and plants while microorganisms include fungi, bacteria, virus and nematodes.
The effects of these living factors on plant expression may be advantageous or disadvantageous, depending on how they interact with the plant.
Maize production sometimes give low or high yield in terms produce. Here are some factors affecting maize production in Ethiopia:
(1). Soil Organisms
(i) It includes bacteria, fungi, earthworm, rodent, termite, etc.
(ii) Some e.g. bacteria and fungi can cause diseases.
(iii) Some aids aeration of soils, percolation and fertility.
(iv) Some like the root nodule bacteria can fix nutrients directly to plants and soil.
(v) Some open up wounds on plants or animals for other pathogens to enter.
(vi) Some reduces the quality of crops e.gpotato, yam etc.
(vii) Some helps in the decomposition of plant materials to form humus.
(i) These include insects, rodents, birds and some mammals.
(ii) It reduces the yield of crops and animals.
(iii) It also reduces the quality of crops and animals.
(iv) Some are vectors or carriers of diseases.
(v) They reduces the income of the farmers
(vi) The cost of their control increases the cost of production
(i) They include ticks, liverflukes, tapeworm, dodder, mistletoe, lice, etc.
(ii) Some transmit diseases.
(iii) They reduce the quantity or yield of produce.
(iv) They also reduce the quality of produce.
(v) They may cause the death of plants and animals.
(vi) They reduce production capacity of livestock or crops.
(vii) Cost of control increases cost of production.
(viii) They may be external or internal (i.e. ecto or endoparasites)
(i) They may be viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.
(ii) They causes reduction in yield of crops and animals
(iii) They can cause the loss or death of plants and animals.
(iv) The cost of control increases the cost of production.
(v) Reduction in farmer’s income.
(i) They compete with crops of space, water, nutrients and sunlight.
(ii) Some weeds can harbour diseases and pests.
(iii) They reduces the yield of crops
(iv) Weed control increases the cost of production.
(v) Weeds causes poor growth of crops
(i) These are birds, rodents, praying mantis etc.
(ii) Some are beneficial in agricultural production.
(iii) Some are used to control some harmful pests of crops and animals.
(iv) Some feeds on farm animals e.g. hawks feed on chicks.
These are the major factors affecting maize production in Ethiopia…