4 Types Of Party System

Party system is an organized structures of parties in a political system. It can be a One party system or Multi-party systems. It is also an arrangement in political system in which the government enact in an election of a political party in a democratic electoral setting.

Types Of Party System

There are 4 main types of party system, Which are:

1. Zero-Party System
2. One Party System
3. Two-Party System
4. Multi-Party Systems

1. Zero-Party System

A zero-party system exists where elections are conducted and contested based on personal attributes, capabilities and programmes presented by individuals. Candidates do not contest elections under the banner or on the platform of any political party.

2. One Party System

One party system may be defined as a political system in which only one political party is legally and constitutionally allowed to operate or through gradual elimination of other political parties through the electoral process. The formation or existence of other political parties apart from the party legally recognized or perpetuated in power in one party state is regarded as an act of treason which may earn the leader of such parties, imprisonment, deportation or are detained. One or single party system operates better in a smaller country both in population and land mass and non multicultural society. Some African countries like Ghana under Nkurumah, Guinea under Ahmed Toure, Kenyatta’s Kenya, Zaire, Tanzania, Zambia, etc, have at one time or the operated one party system.

Two Types Of One-Party System

1. De Jure One-Party System: That is a one-party system which only one political party is legally and constitutionally allowed to operate. This system is practiced in Russia, China, Cuba, Malawi etc.

2. De Facto One-Party System: This type of one-party system exists where there is no legal or constitutional prohibitions on other parties to exist rather the competing political parties are gradually eliminated from functioning through the electoral processes.

3. Two-Party System

A two-party may be defined as a political system in which only two political parties are legally and constitutionally allowed to operate or two major political parties dominate in winning substantial portion of the votes and form government alternatively. Two dominant political parties- The Conservatives and the Labour Parties exist in Great Britain thereby making it a two party state. Countries like U.S.A., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, etc. adopted two-party systems.

4. Multi-Party Systems

A multi-party system may be defined as a political system in which more than two political parties are allowed to compete for gaining of political power and governing the country. In a multi-party system that tends to be an extension of two-party system, one party seldom wins a clear-cut majority of seats in the parliament to enable it form the government. This inability of one party to win a clear-cut majority of seats in the parliament led to the formation of a coalition government.

A coalition Government is one formed by two or more parties that come together as a result of the existing parties to win a clear-cut majority seats in the parliament. This type of government guarantees majority seats in the parliament.

A multi-party system demands a high degree of political maturity, a culture of tolerance, and a high standard of political discipline.

These may be some of the reasons why majority of the advanced nations of Europe and America are fertile ground for multi-party system. This type of political system is practiced in Germany, Italy, France, Sweden, Switzerland, India and Zimbabwe. Nigeria experimented it in its first Republic (1960-1966), second Republic (1979-1983), and the fourth Republic.

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